روش های تحقیق ترکیبی به عنوان سومین جنبش روش شناختی: مبانی نظری و اصول عملی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تحقیق با روش‫های ترکیبی، متأخرترین جهت‫گیری روش‫شناختی در علوم اجتماعی‎ـ رفتاری معاصر است، که به دنبال دوره‫ای نسبتاً طولانی از مناقشه‏های بین دو رویکرد پارادایمی کمّی‫گرا و کیفی‫گرا، ظهور پیدا کرده است. این نوع تحقیق که از نظر فلسفی مبتنی بر رویکرد پراگماتیسم است، با تاکید بر همگرایی پارادایمی و اجتناب از موضع‫گیری‫های کمّی‎ـ کیفی متعارف، در صدد ترکیب هر دو رهیافت کمّی و کیفی در یک مطالعه واحد به‏طور همزمان، متوالی یا تغییرپذیر است. روش‫شناسی ترکیبی گرچه به‏طور ضمنی از دهه 1960 با عناوین متفاوت به کار رفته است، اما آن به‏طور رسمی در یک دهه اخیر آغاز شده و در طول چند سال گذشته بسط و گسترش یافته است. این نوع تحقیق دارای واژگان جدید، اصول، مراحل و طرح‫های خاصی است که با طرح‫های کمّی و کیفی متعارف متفاوت می‫باشد.
بر این اساس، این مقاله ابتدا به خاستگاه تاریخی و برخی تعاریف از این روش اشاره می‫کند، سپس ضمن ارایه انواع طرح‫های ترکیبی استقرایی و قیاسی، طرح‎های شش‫گانه ترکیبی شامل طرح‫های ترکیبی همزمان‎ـ زاویه‫بندی، همزمان‎ـ لانه‫کرده، همزمان‎ـ تغییرپذیر، متوالی‎ـ تبیینی، متوالی‎ـ اکتشافی و متوالی‎ـ تغییرپذیر معرفی شده و شیوه اجرای آنها نیز مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در ادامه مقاله، برخی ابعاد یک تحقیق ترکیبی نوعی شامل اهداف، سؤال‏ها و فرضیه‏ها، جایگاه نظریه، روش‫های نمونه‫گیری ترکیبی، روش‫های ترکیبی گردآوری و تحلیل داده‫ها، مراحل اجرا و نگارش گزارش تحقیق ترکیبی، و در نهایت اعتبار گزارش‎های تحقیق با روش‎های ترکیبی و شیوه‫های نه‫گانه اعتبارسنجی آن مطرح و بررسی شده‫اند. در پایان مقاله، خلاصه‏ای از یک تحقیق ترکیبی انجام‏شده عنوان شده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mixed Methods Research as Third Methodological Movement: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Procedures

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Mohammadpour 1
  • Rasoul Sadeghi 2
  • Mehdi Rezaei 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Bu Ali Sina University
2 PhD Student, Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Mixed Method Research is considered as the latest methodological orientation in social and behavioral sciences and sociology which has been developed following a long period of intra-paradigm controversies between quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on pragmatist perspective, the mixed method research, while emphasizing on paradigm convergence, seeks to combine both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in a single study which takes three forms containing of concurrent, sequential, and transformative designs. Historically tracing back to 1960s, the mixed method research methodology has formally introduced in last decade, then, it has followed and expanded over recent years. This emergent strategy has particular literature, principles, stages and designs quite different from the conventional qualitative and quantitative designs. 
In this Paper, it has been tried to overview the historical emergence of mixed method research and its definitions. Then, while introducing the deductive and inductive types of mixed method designs, six types of mixed method research including of Concurrent-Triangulation, Concurrent-Nested, Concurrent-Transformative, Sequential-Explanatory, Sequential-Exploratory and Sequential-Transformative designs and their practical procedures have been discussed. Besides, some aspects of mixed method research proposal including of: Goals, Questions and Hypothesis in mixed method design, the place of theory, the mixed method data collection and analysis strategies, the practical stages of conducting and writing mixed methods  research  reports, and the strategies of validation and evaluation mixed method designs have been explored.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mixed Methods Research
  • Mixed Designs
  • Mixed Methods Data Collection and Data Analysis Procedures
  • Mixed Methods Sampling
  • Validation and Evaluation of Mixed Methods Research

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