عنوان مقاله [English]
In this paper we try to explain epistemological problems of social sciences in Iran. We first distinguish between epistemological problems and non-epistemological problems. The theoretical context of research includes ideas from Habermas and Popper as they have interesting and very significant theories in this respect. When it comes to Habermas, we put emphasis on various elements of his work. For example, he has important ideas about philosophy of social sciences, including critique of dominant approaches in the social sciences such as positivism, hermeneutics, scientism, and so on. Habermas combines these critiques to open a new way towards a modern social science. Emancipation is a key element of such a new science. Thus he says the social sciences should increase our possibilities to confront the anti-freedom procedures of modern society. In each level of our study, we mention various critical points that have presented by other thinkers about Habermasâs theories. Also, we describe Habermas's answers to these critical views. After reviewing ideas of Habermas and their developments, we design a model for our research. When it comes to Popper, we review his theories on science, epistemology and philosophy of science and social sciences in particular. We design a model from his ideas as well. For example, we use his ideas on falsifiability, as they play an important role in distinguishing between scientific and non-scientific propositions. Other conceptions and principles of Popper's theory include critiques of historicism in the social sciences, the relationship between open society and philosophy, theory of three worlds, critiques of the myth of framework, logic of situation as a method for the social sciences and so on. Based on Pooper's and Habermas's ideas, we try to analyze possibilities of their ideas to solve the epistemological problems of Iranâs sociology. These problems are divided to two groups: intra- scientific problems and extra-scientific problems. The first group itself is again divided into two groups: epistemological and non- epistemological problems. Our emphasis is on the epistemological.
Materials & Methods
In this research, we use documentary and library method. We study books and articles that have written by Pooper and Habermas. Also, we put emphasis on various problems in Iranian sociology. We read public literature about problems of social sciences in general and sociology in particular. We first design a theoretical framework and then use it to collect and analyze our data. In in last phase, we use Popper's and Habermas's ideas to describe a set of resolutions that can potentially help to develop the social sciences of Iran and pass the current crisis in them.
Discussion of Results and Conclusions
As a conclusion, Pooper's and Habermas's ideas can help to solve epistemological problems of Iranâs sociology. This can be done in two ways: 1) by answering to epistemological problems at a global level. In this sense, they talk about the duty of sociology, methodology of social sciences, value freedom, fact and value, rationality, reductionism, realism and anti-realism, knowledge and human interests, and so on. 2) by answering to epistemological problems at a national level. In this respect, they talk about possibility of local or particular sociology, domination of pseudo-positivism approaches in social research, the increasing gap between practice and theory, domination of atomism in research, and so on.
We try to summarize these findings in various tables .In fact, the results at each level are recognized and compared with each other. Final results are shown in the new tables. We believe that sociologists in Iran should focus on important agendas, including providing appropriate context for formulation a local sociology, designing a new philosophical foundation for the social sciences, making a connection between the global and the local, and developing alternative approaches for positivism.