نویسندگان

1 جامعه شناسی دانشگاه لاوال کانادا

2 شیراز. بلوار سفیر شمالی. خیابان صاحب الامر. ابتدای خیابان ولی زاده. سمت راست. درب پنجم

3 مطالعات زنان دانشگاه شیراز

4 بخش جامعه شناسی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

      این مطالعه به بررسی ارتباط جهانی شدن فرهنگی (با تأکید بر سبک زندگی) و گرایش‌ فردگرایی و جمع‌گرایی جوانان شهر شیراز پرداخته است . پس از مرور مطالعات انجام شده و نظریه‌های موجود در رابطه با متغیرهای مستقل و وابسته ، چارچوب نظری ترکیبی با توجه به نظریه گیدنز و نظریه‌ فردگرایی ـ جمع‌گرایی تریاندیس تدوین شد. روش این تحقیق پیمایشی و ابزار پرسشنامه بود. در همین راستا، تعداد 533 نفر از جوانان با استفاده از نمونه‌گیری تصادفی سهمیه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای انتخاب شدند. یافته‌های مستخرج از چهار مدل رگرسیون چند متغیره نیز نشان داد که متغیرهای: سبک زندگی فراغتی ـ مدرن و سبک زندگی مجازی 58 درصد از تغییرات متغیر فردگرایی عمودی و متغیرهای: سبک زندگی فراغتی ـ مدرن و سبک زندگی فرهنگی ـ اجتماعی بر روی هم 8/15 درصد از تغییرات متغیر فردگرایی افقی را تبیین کردند. برای متغیر جمع‌گرایی افقی نیز دو متغیر: سبک زندگی معطوف به مدیریت بدن (بعد ظاهر) و سبک زندگی فراغتی ـ سنتی وارد معادله شده و 5/2 درصد از تغییرات فردگرایی افقی را تبیین کردند. دو متغیر سبک زندگی مذهبی ـ سنتی و سبک زندگی مجازی نیز به میزان 3/44 درصد متغیر جمع‌گرایی عمودی کل را تبیین کردند.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of the Relationship between Cultural Globalization with Individualism and Collectivism (Research Subject: Shiraz City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maziar Jafari 1
  • Leila Parnian 2
  • Leila Parnian 3
  • Bizhan Khajenoori 4

1 Laval University, Canada

2 شیراز. بلوار سفیر شمالی. خیابان صاحب الامر. ابتدای خیابان ولی زاده. سمت راست. درب پنجم

3 Shiraz University, Iran

4 Department of Sociology, Shiraz University, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
The globalization culture refers to liberal broadcasting of culture, advances in IT, and changes in value systems, meaning systems and practices and lifestyles of communities. One of the effects of cultural globalization, which can be reproduced in the framework of the new values and lifestyles, is individualism. As a modern concept, individualism stands in contrast to collectivism and with its "I" (instead of "we") guides human behavior. Although the passion and commitment to the goals of the group form the basis of any social gathering, in individualistic societies, people tend to act based on their individual interests. Thus, the prevalence of individualism in the era of cultural globalization can hinder social development and lead to such problems as social isolation, reduction of the convergence and mutual trust, narcissism, selfishness, creation of very fragile and unstable social relations, family fragmentation, etc. Among different age groups of society, the youth tend to have a higher level of cultural receptivity and more contacts with the symbols and instruments of modernity and global ideas. Hence, the study of cultural globalization and individualism among this particular group is of crucial importance.



Materials and Methods
This study is based on quantitative approach in which the youth's tendency towards individualism and collectivism is measured in the city of Shiraz according to a theoretical framework composed of Giddens's views about globalization and lifestyle and Triandes' theory about individualism and collectivism. The study method was survey and the data was collected by a research-made questionnaire. Sample size includes 533 young citizens of Shiraz who were selected by random quota sampling method. Formal validity and construct validity of the instrument were obtained by operationalization of lifestyle, individualism and collectivism as research variables we used factor analysis to guarantee construct validity. The variable of individualism has four dimensions of self-reliance, competitiveness, ambition and emotional distance, whereas collectivism variable has three dimensions of unity and integration, self-sacrifice and interdependence.

Discussion of Results and Conclusions
The results of the study show that individualism has a significant correlation with lifestyle in general and modern recreational lifestyle, figurative lifestyle, friendly lifestyle and lifestyle focused on body management in particular. Also, collectivism has a significant correlation with modern recreational lifestyle, religious lifestyle and recreational – traditional lifestyle and lifestyle in general. Such correlations confirm the theoretical framework and principles of the study, which talk about the modern nature of individualism. Considering today's modern culture, which is associated with an abundance economy and the variety of selections, it is possible to talk about different lifestyles because the youth play a role in creating different styles and preferences in fields such as body management, how to pass recreation time, cooperation pattern, etc. Such differences make it possible for the youth to easily show behaviors which are specific to certain lifestyles and are simultaneously different from others. As a result of such diversity in lifestyles, the youth experience less homogeneity and similarity and more feelings of independence, distinguished status, and individuality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultural Globalization
  • Lifestyle
  • Individualism
  • Collectivism
  • Retrospection