هدف این مقاله، بررسی نقش عوامل اجتماعی (خانواده، مدرسه و گروه همسالان) در جامعهپذیری دانشآموزان استان گلستان بود. روش پژوهش کمی از نوع توصیفی با پیمایش اجتماعی است. جامعة آماری شامل کلیه دانشآموزان دبیرستانی استان گلستان به تعداد 76156 نفر است که با استفاده از فرمول برآورد حجم نمونه کوکران، حجم نمونهای برابر با 400 نفر از جامعة آماری انتخاب شدند. روش نمونهگیری خوشهای چندمرحلهای و تصادفی ساده بود. ابتدا شهرهای استان، سپس مدارس و در نهایت از طریق لیست دبیران نمونهها به طور خوشهای چند مرحلهای و تصادفی انتخاب شدند.یافتهها نشان داد بین گروه همسالان، خانواده، مدرسه و جامعهپذیری رابطة همبستگی مثبت و معنیداری وجود داشت. همچنین بین گروههای سنی مختلف و جنس (دختر و پسر)، تفاوت معناداری در جامعهپذیری وجود داشت. در خاتمه همچنین خانواده، پیشبینیکنندة جامعهپذیری دانشآموزان گزارش شد. نتایج این پژوهش با پژوهشهای بسیاری همخوان بود. در دورة جدید، تغییرات چشمگیری در عوامل جامعهپذیری صورت گرفته است؛ بهطوریکه امروزه، حضور در فضای مجازی هم بر فرد جامعهپذیر و هم دیگر عوامل جامعهپذیری تأثیر گذاشته است. وزن و ترکیب عوامل جامعهپذیری (خانواده، مدرسه، همسالان) در سه دورة سنتی، مدرن اولیه و مدرن متأخر دگرگون شده است؛ اما همچنان نقش خانواده منحصر به فرد و بیبدیل مانده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Role of Social Factors (Family, School, Peer Group) in Socialization of Students in Golestan Province
Literally, socialization means conformity with society and familiarizing with society (Hagh Shenas et al, 2008). In sociology this concept refers to a process whereby people will achieve properties which are befitting for being a member of the society (scruto,2007). In other words, socialization is a kind of social interaction that during it a person will learn the norms, values, and other social, cultural, and political elements, existing in his group or his environment and internalizes them to unite it with his personality (Salimi & Daveri, 2006).After family, peer group is known as the second most important factor of socialization (Sotoudeh, 2016). Adolescence is considered to be accompanied with major and various changes and an increase in vulnerability. Beginning of puberty is usually followed by early or late psychological maturity and high risk-taking behaviors which appears differently in boys and girls (Pettiford, 2015: 13). By socialization teenagers will learn how to recognize and manage their emotional display and also they will learn how to view social norms (Collins, 2004; Rubin, 2011).Parents are considered as a major factors of socialization in young ages in a way that this impact will be continued till adolescence ( Collins & Laursen, 2004; Rubin, Oh, Menzer, & Ellison, 2011). Parents and friends are involved with a great range of social strategies, such as modeling of expressing feelings in response to the teenagers’ feelings and related issues.
Schools also have some roles in the process of socialization. Education in schools is a formal process. There is a certain aim which must be learned from lessons. There is something besides the formal educational program, which is named hidden training program by sociologist that makes children’s learning conditional. Children are expected to be on time, calm and obey school’s rules. Teacher’s reaction has some effects on children’s expectation of themselves which will be linked by their job experience when they leave school (Giddens, 1999, 106-107). With regards to what is discussed the principal question of this research is to define the roles of social factors in socializations of students in Golestan province.
Materials and Methods:
This research is a correlational descriptive survey. Statistical population includes all high school students of Golestan province. According to the latest expertly report of the educational administration of Golestan province the number of all high school students in Golestan province is 76156. Relying on estimating the sample volume of Cochrane formula, 400 people of subjects were chosen as the sample. The method of sampling is simple random cluster sampling method. The tool of gathering data in this research is questionnaire: sociability factors scale questionnaire (SFS). This questionnaire includes 26 questions which measure three factors of socialization (family, peer group, school). The reliability of tools is 0.85 according to Cronbach’s alpha in Zaki’s research (2003). In Ghorban’s research it is reported 0.89. In this research the alpha is calculated to be 0.76.
Discussion of Results & Conclusions
The aim of this study was to define the roles of social factors in socialization of high school students of Golestan province. In hypothesis test “There is a relation between peer group, family, and school with socialization” Finding indicates there is a meaningful positive correlation. This correlation between family and school is 0.337, family and peer group 0.384, school and socialization 0.155, and for peer group and socialization is 0.123. The finding of this study is consistent with Seyedi’s research (2013). This relation confirms all psychological and sociological theories which emphasis the great role of family in forming a person’s behavior, values and norms (Zaferani & Ali Nia, 2012). Finding indicate there is a major difference in socialization of different ages. Following peer groups is more in childhood and early adulthood. This is a complicated process that differs according to the age of the teenager and his need of social approval by considering the situation. The finding indicate that parents and peers often act in a coordinated way in desired targets, and finally peers pressure has a minor relation with values and attitudes of teenager. Teenagers do not always obey the peer’s rules (Brown, Lower, Mac colnahan, 1986). Young teenagers obey peers more than adult teens due to the fear of peer’s perception about themselves (Brown, Clasen & Eicher, 1986), so by aging peer’s openness of influence would be decreased.