مطالعۀ حاضر نقش دموکراسی را بر میزان احساس شادمانی بررسی میکند. این مطالعه، بررسی در سطح کلان و بهصورت مقطعی - عرضی است. دادهها برای 145 کشور از مجموعه دادههای گوناگون گردآوری شدهاند. شیوۀ مطالعه تحلیل ثانویه است. رویکرد مطالعه نوعی تنظریۀ تلفیقی است که همزمان با نقش دموکراسی، عامل توسعۀ اقتصادی و نابرابری را نیز در بررسی میزان شادمانی در نظر گرفته است. یافتهها بیان میکنند که اول، میزان شادمانی تفاوتهای معناداری بین ملل مختلف دارد و کشورهای شمال اروپا با میانگین بالای 80 درصد بالاترین میزان شادمانی را در جهان دارند. دوم، دموکراسی اثر مثبت و معناداری بر میزان شادمانی دارد. سوم، این اثر ازطریق سرمایۀ اجتماعی بسیار بیشتر خواهد شد؛ بنابراین، در الگوی ترکیبی ارائهشده از عوامل سطح کلان، میزان دموکراسی در کنار افزایش توسعۀ اقتصادی و کاهش میزان نابرابری درآمد، توانایی تبیین مقدار جالبتوجهی از تغییرات میزان شادمانی را دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the Relationship between Democracy and Sense of Happiness: A Cross-National Study
This study aims to focus on one of the major factors, namely, the degree of democracy and its relation to happiness. Looking at the preliminary evidence, it is well established that countries with a high level of democracy look happier. Moreover, the life satisfaction of the people of these countries is higher. The key question is whether concentration of power and the extent of democracy in societies increase or decrease happiness among individuals. Also, what is the role of economic factors and income inequality regarding happiness in addition to the level of democracy as one of the major variables at the macro level? The present study examines the relationship between f democracy and happiness. This study is a cross-national study. Data from 145 countries has been gathered from a variety of data sets. The method of study is secondary analysis. The study approach is a kind of combined theory that, simultaneously with the role of democracy, has considered the factor of economic development and inequality in examining the amount of happiness.
Materials & Methods
The key question is whether concentration of power and the extent of democracy in societies increase or decrease happiness among individuals. There are a few approaches regarding the relationship between democracy and happiness. Some believe that the findings do not indicate a positive relationship between happiness and democracy, and that if there is a relationship between happiness and democracy, it is influenced by other factors including economic development (Inglehart, 2006). Another theoretical approach asserts that democracy itself directly and indirectly contributes to the increase in happiness in society. Scholars, in this approach, has found a very strong positive relationship between democracy and happiness (Loubser, 2017; Doran, 2005).
In this study, a third approach is selected. This approach states that democracy in many ways enhances happiness at the community level. First, by reinforcing the democracy, the social capital is reinforced in a society. It has reinvigorated civil society, broadened trust, and expanded happiness throughout society by expanding cultural renewal. Second, democracy increases the level of social security in society through decreasing corruption. This reduces anxiety in individuals and increases life satisfaction. The method of this study is comparative-quantitative and cross-sectional. The unit of analysis is the country and the method of study is secondary analysis. Data for 2017 and 2018 have been collected from several reputable sources. Happiness data have been used from the data collected by Venhanen (2018). In addition, Legatum data were used to investigate the factors affecting happiness.
Discussion of Results & Conclusions
The results show that there is a positive and significant relationship between happiness and democracy. There is also a positive and significant relationship between the existence of modern social capital and the level of happiness. The findings state that first, the level of happiness has significant differences among nations. Nordic countries with the highest average of 80% have the maximum levels of happiness in the world. Second, democracy has a positive and significant effect on the amount of happiness. Thirdly, this effect will be larger through social capital. Therefore, in the combined model presented by macro-level factors, the amount of happiness along with increasing economic development and reducing the amount of income inequality has the capability to explain a significant amount of changes in happiness.
This would have a greater impact when development and economic prosperity in society increase and income inequality decreases. In addition, the results of this study show that several macro-level variables in a society must be simultaneously running to have a positive and lasting effect on increasing happiness. Democracy can create a vibrant civil society by enhancing modern, not tribal, social capital. Attending multiple associations in a dynamic civil society is one of the most important factors in enhancing individual agency. This must be done alongside the growth of welfare in society to meet basic human needs and not to increase social inequality. In other words, economic development will lead to greater happiness at the community level when individuals, along with an efficient democracy, can also benefit from the positive aspects of economic development.